Ordination speech example
We also transfected C2C12 cells with the amphiphysin fragment A1, which prevents clathrin-mediated endocytosis by blocking the recruitment and thus assembly of clathrin (Slepnev et al., 1998, 2000). In A1-expressing cells, both transferrin uptake (a reporter of clathrin-mediated endocytosis) and cell fusion were impaired . We describe rapid massive endocytosis (MEND) of >50% of the plasmalemma in baby hamster kidney (BHK) and HEK293 cells in response to large Ca transients. Constitutively expressed Na/Ca exchangers (NCX1) are used to generate Ca transients, whereas capacitance recording and a membrane tracer dye, FM 4–64, are used to monitor endocytosis. With high cytoplasmic adenosine triphosphate (ATP; >5 mM ... Some studies suggest that annexins help bend and fuse membranes . Leikina et al. discovered that antibodies that block two annexins, A1 and A5, prevented myoblasts from merging. Knocking down A1 or A5 with siRNA also stymied cell fusion. The functions of the two annexins appear to overlap.